Revised post

Here is my original blog post #4.

Through re-reading my post #4, I want to add some new points about whether K-12 students are suitable for using Twitter as an educational tool.

Revised post:

A study shows that Twitter as a social media can increase student’s self-study ability, which is newly published this year (Owens, 2020). Owens (2020) states that social media, such as Twitter and Facebook, enlarges the learning scale from local to global, connecting learners together. Twitter allows students to collaborate with other students on a global scale. Although it is inevitable to face fake news on the network, which is risky, educators are likely to focus on the fast-paced life around the world. As I mentioned in the original post, a fast-paced study is not suitable for learning; however, more instructional staff consider that expanding social media usage as Twitter in education aims to keep pacing on the “fast-changing” world (Owens, 2020). Twitter’s primary characteristic is dynamic, which is convenient for students to post ideas online continuously, and instructors can answer any questions and correct miss understandings “in-real” time or asynchronously (Luo et al. 2019).

In the original blog, I concluded several ways of using Twitter support an OER (Open Educational Resources)-enabled pedagogy. I will address more details in the following. OER is associated with the Open Pedagogy (Wiley & Hilton III, 2018). It is a novel theory in the educational area. Comparing with traditional education, Open Pedagogy focuses more on learner’s interest in a learning context and learning progression, treating students in the same learning ability level (Wiley & Hilton III, 2018). OER (e.g., videos, blogs) refers to utilize online educational materials and serve it to target users. Materials contain copyright licenses, which prevents students from copying and duplicating artifacts illegally. Students under the permission could implement 5R activities: retain (e.g., download, store), reuse, revise (e.g., translate to another language), remix (e.g., create new content based on given context), and redistribute (e.g., share copy).

Speaking about the Open Pedagogy and OER, a new phase appears in the article: renewable assignment. A renewable assignment is different from the traditional assignment (also called disposable assignments). Disposable assignments describe a situation that a student creates an assignment, a professor gives grade and comment, and then students throw it in a recycle bin or leave it (Wiley & Hilton III, 2018). This action wastes learning outcomes, whereas renewable assignments recycle these assignments, store them online as useful learning material, and benefit other students to study and introduce. Renewable assignments need to satisfy four criteria: “student creates artifacts, the artifact has value beyond supporting its creator’s learning, the artifact is made public, and the artifact is openly licensed” (Wiley & Hilton III, 2018). Correct me if my opinion is wrong; from my perspective, students create micro-blogs under a specific educational topic on Twitter can be categorized into renewable assignments. Other students can comment and cite the idea in their blogs, which helps gain knowledge through self-studying. Tang & Hew (2017) state that Twitter can facilitate learner and learner interaction positively. It also supports learning outcomes by “pushing” students to engage in open activities (e.g., hosting a conversation, publishing a useful video).

Besides, Wiley & Hilton III (2018) provide few examples of utilizing OER, which may help the reader understand Open pedagogy and OER better. I will address two examples: a Digital Photography course and a Social Psychology class. Students attend the digital Photography course are encouraged to submit their best artifacts, and thus, instructors will collect and use these photos for future learning materials. An interesting phenome is that after completing these actions, the average grade of the class is higher than before. In a Social Psychology class, students are encouraged to create questions about learning resources to strengthen their knowledge. Instructors will use these questions for future students, as a typical example of OER. These two examples fully present the advantages of using OER.

In conclusion, OER allows students to choose a learning context based on their interests, which adds to learning motivations. Although more spending on OER may be a challenge to the school financial burden, OER’s advantages should be considered before purchasing paper-copy textbooks. Moreover, appropriately use Twitter as a support tool for OER can increase K-12 student’s learning interest and learning outcome.



Luo, T., Shah, S. J., & Cromptom, H. (2019). Using Twitter to Support Reflective Learning in an Asynchronous Online Course. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 35(3). doi:10.14742/ajet.4124

Owens, T. (2020). The Influence of Twitter Educational Opinion Leaders on K-12 Classrooms (Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University).

Tang, Y., & Hew, K. F. (2017). Using Twitter for education: Beneficial or simply a waste of time? Computers & Education, 106, 97-118. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2016.12.004

Wiley, D., & Hilton III, J. L. (2018). Defining OER-Enabled Pedagogy. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 19(4).

Final Reflection

Instructors from both sections of EDCI339 hosted an online conversation about opening learning last Thursday. It is an excellent opportunity to display how Twitter works as an educational tool in open learning. From reviewing the participant’s comments and ideas, I admit that Twitterchat helps me understand more about open learning in terms of K-12. It conveys different opinions throughout the world and collects these opinions in a specific hashtag #edci339, which increases learning opportunities and various perspectives.

During three weeks course of Distributed and Open Learning, this course transfers from distributed learning (e.g., Coursespace) to open learning (e.g., WordPress), which brings us to experience about differences between distributed and open learning. I agree with Leona’s opinion: opening learning benefits the flexibility and accessibility of course learning materials (@leona_ngan). Students without a mandatory password can review previous posts at any time and place. However, Miss Millar also addresses a question about implementing open learning tools. Parents with many children may find it hard to manage different platforms asked by schools (@MissMillar3), especially even for the same school that has multiple platforms.

Implementing open learning in K-12 needs to consider related regulations such as FIPPA  and safety protection policy because K-12 students may not experience this educational form before and may lack the ability to distinguish online fake news. Therefore, through reviewing and commenting on this topic, I notice that open learning helps close students’ relationships and collaborate effectively between instructors, learners, and learning contexts.


Twitter accounts:



Individual Post #4

Twitter, as a popular social media around the world, conveys and spreads information in a few seconds. Under the open pedagogy theory, Twitter can be seen as a tool for open education. On this open platform, users can share videos, articles, links, and topics, which helps understand various information.

Analyzing whether Twitter can be used as an educational tool is controversial. The purpose of developing Twitter is to connect people around the world together. Luo et al. (2019) state that Twitter is a micro-blog social media, with a maximum of 140 characters. Each person is encouraged to share his/her comment and voice by creating a new blog. Twitter has five major characters: assessing, collaborating, administrating, reflecting, and communicating. Hence, the form of using Twitter is similar to education pedagogy. A study shows, in higher education, the usage of Twitter increases student’s learning outcome and learning experience (Luo et al., 2019).

Twitter chat is available for a person to share a brief opinion with other users. Participators can engage in the conversation by typing a hashtag sign (#) to locate a specific topic.  For example, in the edci339 class, students are invited to discuss open education for K-12 students. Each student can join in the conversation using the hashtag #edci339 without creating an account. There is also no limit time for students to read others’ posts, which is beneficial for reviewing posts repeat.

Luo et al. (2019) argue that “online micro-blog provides a digital, flexible, and open learning environment,” which can motivate students’ learning interests, different from the traditional educational model. Instructors and learners can communicate and interact through commenting on each blog. Instructors can post a web link or article link on Twitter to increase learning resources, developing student’s ability to explore new knowledge. “Twitter-based education helps educators create a dynamic learning community for students where they could collaboratively work on projects and provide emotional support to their peers” (Luo et al., 2019). It also supports Open Educational Resources (OER) pedagogy by giving students access to academic articles, educational videos, etc.

However, Twitter is fast-paced, which is not suitable for education. Instructors may use Twitter as an auxiliary educational tool to increase communication with students and enhance students’ learning interest. Nonetheless, Twitter is still social media. Students may waste time on this app and distract their attention from the course material. Although Twitter can help to increase learning outcomes in higher education, in terms of educating K-12 students, I do not recommend to use this social media frequently.



Luo, T., Shah, S. J., & Cromptom, H. (2019). Using Twitter to Support Reflective Learning in an Asynchronous Online Course. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 35(3). doi:10.14742/ajet.4124

Individual Post #3

The first article wrote by Robin Derosa & Rajiv Jhangiani discussed a popular educational topic: “Open Pedagogy”. Open pedagogy offers an open learning method that promotes conversation between staff and the theory of Open Education, including Open Access, Source, Science, and Government. Open pedagogy related to educational materials, technology, teaching methods, student’s financial situation, and social aspects. Open Educational Resources (OERs) is an online educational resource aiming to reduce education costs, increase students’ access to learning, and cultivate students’ creative thinking. According to the research, more than 50% of students in British Columbia cannot afford a required textbook. In achieving higher education, financial support is also crucial for accessing the learning material. OERs are commonly concluded in 5Rs: reused, retained, redistributed, revised, and remixed (Derosa & Jhangiani, 2017). The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that students should gain equal access to higher education. When implementing OERs in Open Pedagogy, OERs can solve this issue, easing students’ financial burden and promoting access to learning materials. OERs, as a learning tool, can help instructors to convey knowledge. Replacing traditional textbooks with OERs can better spread the idea of open learning practice.

Speaking about the purpose of Open pedagogy, Derosa & Jhangiani (2017) consider that constructing an empowering and collaborative learning way to help students engage, succeed, and graduate from collages. Constructivist pedagogy, which combines learning and digital pedagogy, is a learning process focus on the experiential and learner-based learning method, including democratic education. Connected learning, which is supported by digital media and technology, helps learners to understand the knowledge and produce creative ideas.

Therefore, Derosa & Jhangiani (2017) argue that Open Pedagogy realizes the “autonomy and interdependence; freedom and responsibility; democracy and participation,” It changes the instructor-based input knowledge to learner-based inquiry education. Students within Open Pedagogy will study more spontaneously and effectively.



Derosa, R., & Jhangiani, R. (2017, August 29). Open Pedagogy. Retrieved July 22, 2020, from


Individual Post #2

The communication method in education is continuously changing with the advent of technology. “Distance learning or teaching” symbolized a new way of teaching methods. Online education enlarges the physical distance between professors and students, which is the future education trend. As a new teaching form, online education will attract more students and teachers in the future (Major, 2015). This innovation education form allows learning across time and space, which will symbolize the higher education.

Students, without attending lectures in school, learn the same material and knowledge online, which saves travel time and cost. Students are able to arrange learning time based on their schedules, which is more flexible and convenient. The principle of how to evaluate student’s engagement is difficult to formulate. Student engagement presents one’s learning attitude and desire to be educated, leading them to realize the higher-level thinking success. It includes a student’s motivation, attention, and involvement. Motivation has two categories: internal and external, which presents student’s interest in learning subjects and specific factors as grades, scholarship. Attention means that during the process of learning a student’s ability to ignore other influence factors. Involvement depends on students’ effort to spend on the learning subjects, and it requires student’s learning interest and expected goal to support.

Instructors with new technology should properly design learning material to achieve the expected learning outcomes and engage students in activities, with less face-to-face interaction, communication becomes the first problem. Strategies include:

  • Use student-led pedagogies: In the activity, students control over the learning pace, which provides opportunities for student fully engage in and stimulate their motivation
  • Use pedagogies that empower students in the pedagogical process: allowing students to revise the course syllabus, and acting as instructors in the course. This activity helps students to learn more active and reflective
  • Use pedagogies that enable students to connect their personal interests to course content
  • Use pedagogies that stimulate reality
  • Use pedagogies that have students create authentic products
  • Use multiple and varied pedagogies that require documented student action

Thus, instructors should follow these strategies to engage students in an online class.



Major, C. H. (2015). Teaching online: A guide to theory, research, and practice. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Individual Post #1

Photo retrieved from Jamcampus

After reading three articles, I am impressed by the first article “Learning is not a mechanism”. Stommel (2018) states that digital learning is not focusing on using digital tools. I agreed with this opinion. Pedagogy is more important than technology. It is unnecessary to compare which technology is better for study. I think technology is more like a learning tool to help students engage in class and is convenient for instructors to deliver learning materials. We need to mention the way how instructors convey knowledge to students, how students learn effectively, and how do they interact within the class.

Education should focus on teaching rather than assessment. This sentence is true, but if without grading, how can instructors evaluate students? It is unavoidable to assess students’ learning outcomes in an objective way. However, instructors and educational managers should create the learning objective and course outline more flexible. Students have various personalities and learning habits; hence instructors may adjust the assignments and projects based on these varieties. Digital pedagogy such as Moodle, Zoom facilitate education in ways of spreading and accessing learning resources. Students can interact and communicate with instructors on online-forum. Educational professions can not only utilize the advantages of digital pedagogy but adjust learning design to promote “learning is non-mechanism” purpose.

The second article discusses the blended learning, which includes face-to-face and online learning. Blended learning contains innovation in pedagogy and technology, applying in higher education. Innovation is the process to rethink and redesigning one’s idea to fully engage in learning activities. In other words, innovation increases the engagement in blended learning and to reinforce thinking and discourse. Personalized thinking and discourse are symbols of higher education purposes in the context of the Community of Inquiry (COI). Three key presences in COI are cognitive, teaching, and social. Cognitive is described as an ability to construct a statement/opinion in the process of rethinking and redesigning. Teaching is associated with learning design and success, while social related to the open environment. 

Principles are essential to cope with technology-based education. Chickering and Gamson (1987) concluded seven principles in undergraduate education, which cooperated with the teaching presence to inspire students with responsibilities and more educational experience. However, these principles mainly focus on the traditional education model, usually applied in lectures and face-to-face classes.

Regan and Jesse (2019) point that ethical challenges in personalized learning programs. Six ethical concerns should be identified: information privacy, anonymity, surveillance, autonomy, non-discrimination, and ownership of information. Student’s interactions with the program address the greatest information issues in personalized learning programs. Compared with blended learning, personalized learning faces more ethical issues in terms of using computer programs. With the increasing use of edtech and big data in school, parents and instructors should pay more attention to inform students about disclosing personal data through the internet, and governmental professions should enact related laws to regulate the safer online learning environment.




Stommel, J. (2018, September 12). Learning is Not a Mechanism. Retrieved July 7, 2020, from

Vaughan, N. D., Cleveland-Innes, M., & Garrison, D. R. (2013). Teaching in blended learning environments: Creating and sustaining communities of inquiry. Edmonton: AU Press.

Regan, P.M., Jesse, J. Ethical challenges of edtech, big data and personalized learning: twenty-first century student sorting and tracking. Ethics Inf Technol 21, 167–179 (2019).

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